There is a discussion on determinism and free will which the author agrees can be compatible. He says that determinism is favored by most modern professional philosophers yet our own phenomenology suggests free will or so it seems. Metzinger thinks that what science tells us or will tell us eventually about free will, will contradict what we feel subjectively about it. He does admit though that the phenomenology of will is not at all worked out. We assume that free will exists, treat one another as autonomous agents, and even base our legal system and societal rules on those assumptions. Dynamical self-organization according to the laws of physics is the mechanism of the brain and all man-made rules and assumptions of will may be illusory, or so neuroscience suggests.
Wednesday, July 24, 2013
Book Review: The Ego Tunnel: The Science of the Mind and the Myth of the Selfby Thomas Metzinger (Basic Books 2009)
This ‘cutting edge’ book melds philosophy of consciousness with cognitive neuroscience. Metzinger is a philosopher. Though written for the lay reader, it is hard to follow at times. Quite a lot of concepts, relationships, and terminology are introduced. However, he does re-explain things enough so that the theory makes sense if one persists. He endeavors to cover the issues current in consciousness research and even offers interviews with various researchers and neuroscientists. Some of the subjects are emotions, dreaming and so-called astral phenomena, empathy, free will, AI, and the ethics of cultivating various states of consciousness. The starting point and the overriding theory throughout the book is that the realization that there is no entity that is us, as we normally perceive us – that our reality is a virtual reality based on a model of the self that evolved along with our human form of consciousness.
One of the key concepts, or metaphors, of the book is the Phenomenal Self-Model (PSM). He describes it with the help of a now famous experiment first done at the
, called the
‘rubber-hand illusion’. In the experiment the person sticks their hands through
holes in a window in such a way that one hand is concealed and one sees an
artificial hand in place of it. Repeatedly, including with the author, the
experiment shows that when one thinks one is seeing the hand, though actually
the virtual hand, one feels it as the hand and reacts as if it were the hand.
What one actually feels is what he calls the ‘content’ of the phenomenal
self-model. The word “phenomenal” refers to phenomenology which is concerned
with the reporting of how things appear to one. For example, color only exists
as it is created by our sensory apparatus – other organisms see something
different. One might also use the analogy of the “Plato’s Cave”
metaphor/parable – where one believes in a reality based only on what one has
experienced. When one experiences beyond this, so too does the reality expand. University
“The PSM of Homo sapiens is probably one of nature’s best inventions. It is an efficient way to allow a biological organism to consciously conceive of itself (and others) as a whole. Thus it enables the organism to interact with its internal world as well as with the external environment in an intelligent and holistic manner.”
He notes that animals, though having consciousness, have a different PSM than humans. Along with the rubber-hand illusion there are other phenomena that suggest the PSM: out-of body experiences (OBE) and artificial limb syndrome are among them. The body double, body image, or astral body of OBE is also the ‘content’ of the PSM. The ‘ego’ dwells in this body model. We perceive the parts of our body as belonging to us which strengthens this ego-illusion. Thus the ego, as it appears, exists in a ‘tunnel’. Our sense of self, says Metzinger, is “a form of conscious representational content.” The reason it is called a tunnel is that we only perceive a fraction of what is really there as our senses evolved merely to ensure our survival rather than to experience all that is possible to experience.
“Modern neuroscience has demonstrated that the content of our conscious experience is not only an internal construct but also an extremely selective way of representing information.”
Thus the concept of the “Ego Tunnel” is the central metaphor of the book. The PSM is the model. The ego, or “I” or self, is what is in the model. He also calls it a “self-model theory of subjectivity”. A key feature of the model is that it is transparent, so that we do not normally recognize it. It is a brain simulation. It is not reality but an image of reality. This configuration (ego in tunnel) is “evolved representational phenomena, a result of dynamical self-organization on many levels.” The idea of the ego tunnel is based on earlier ideas of the “reality tunnel” found in virtual reality research and promulgated by those he calls non-academic philosophers – namely Robert Anton Wilson and Timothy Leary. The basic idea is that we do not see reality as it is because we filter it (automatically and unconsciously) and so construct our own version, or model of reality.
He also talks about the search for a “neural correlate of consciousness” (NCC) and specifically a global neural correlate of consciousness. The NCC is defined as a “set of neurofunctional properties in your brain sufficient to bring about a conscious experience.” Correlation does not mean causation so discovering these correlates (ie. what happens in the brain during events) does not really explain consciousness. But such discovery can help with the future neuro-technology of inducing states of consciousness.
Consciousness is defined as “the appearance of a world.” Human consciousness developed special features so that we can model our models, be conscious of our consciousness, etc. These are “higher-order” levels of the PSM, he says. In considering the possible effects of knowledge of knowledge (ie. epistemology) he notes the extremes of ‘reductionism’ – reducing everything to one simplistic theory, and ‘mysterianism’ – favoring the impossibility of knowing much about consciousness. He does admit that there are other ways of knowing besides science.
Metzinger describes six problems that need to be solved in formulating a philosophical and neurological theory of consciousness. The first he calls the one-world problem: the unity of consciousness. The ‘one world problem; is described like this: “In order for a world to appear to us, it has to be one world first.” He gives examples of psychiatric disorders – sometimes due to brain lesions – where people can’t recognize what they are seeing, touching, cannot name their limbs, or cannot integrate seeing and hearing. Many of these disorders are versions of agnosia. Some neurologists speak of a “world-binding function” as in the dynamical core hypothesis. The neural properties underlying consciousness – the global NCC - may give us the sense of the “unity of consciousness.” This sense of the unity or coherence of consciousness may be virtual. It may be a result of the “global synchrony” of neurons making it seem as if what is in the cloud of consciousness (the dynamical core) is our subjective experience and what is not within the cloud is not part of our subjective experience. Here is an interesting quote but the context is a bit unclear. Regarding neurological experiments with “mathematical instruments” he notes that “they show us how self-organization in our brains strikes an optimal balance between integration and segregation, …” Consciousness may create the world in the manner of “context loops” where the immediate past conditions the present by creating a context for it. In visual perception, for instance, this may occur in the time frame of micro-seconds. The synchrony of neural responses may allow for the optimal balance between integration and segregation as mentioned above. Neuronal firings are often in synch and/or in rhythm which allows for information coding. Neuroscientists studying meditators have noted clear “global phase-synchrony” on EEG readings of those who are very experienced meditators. It is apparent that meditation can change the deep structure of consciousness. With synchrony, intensity of firing, rate of firing, etc – being the main information coding mechanisms, it can be seen that the unity of consciousness is involved with ‘time’.
The next problem is called – the now problem – subjective experience of time is a necessary part of consciousness. A major function of consciousness according to psychologist Richard Gregory is “flagging the dangerous present,” Our inner model of time is likely an adaptive mechanism. Our sense of presence is knowledge that can help us survive. We experience simultaneity, succession, and duration as aspects of time – our temporal gestalt. “Presence is a necessary condition for conscious experience.” We have a sense of presence but we are not really in touch with the presence because neural information processing takes time. Now is merely an appearance we experience as now. The ego is inseparable from here and now. Our sense of presence is our inner representation of time.
Next is – the reality problem. If the first two problems are solved we have a unified world and a model of the present moment. Our world-models and now-models are transparent, which is why we don’t experience them as representative models. The author talks about higher-order representations. For instance, a first-order process would be visual perception and a second-order process would be attentional processing of visual perception. While transparency may be caused by the speed of information-processing the author suggests that it has more to do with the speed of processing of different order processes relative to each other, ie. speed of visual perception relative to speed of attentional processing of visual perception. The bottom line is that the brain is invisible to itself. He suggests that the reason the model stayed transparent to us is that it would not have been cost-efficient in terms of metabolic price (a concept whereby new ways of knowing/doing cost energy in terms of sugar metabolism) to know that we were knowing, or to make images about images, also known as metarepresentation. He notes that “whatever appears to us – however it is mediated – appears as reality.” The phenomenal transparency is our “invisible interface to reality.” Situations where the transparency, the transparent walls of the ego tunnel, disappear (in varying degrees), may include dreams, lucid dreams, OBEs, NDEs, optical illusions, visions, hypnagogic hallucinations, psychiatric maladies, and psychedelic drug experiences.
Next is – the ineffability problem – much of the details of consciousness can’t be recalled or communicated. The contents of consciousness can be ineffable in several ways – we may not have language to describe certain things; describing visual things to a blind person is not really effective; our ability to discriminate things like subtle differences in color hues exceeds our ability to form concepts about them. We can detect contrast in our sensory experiences but we generally cannot identify or recognize the same exact event without it being contrasted against the next value. We have limited perceptual memory. There are those that have finer degrees of discrimination to detect nuances – vintners, musicians, perfume designers. Conscious experience is so subtle that the nuances can hardly be communicated. One must experience them for oneself. The author suggests that one day neurobiological concepts may replace inadequate phenomenological concepts but it is yet unclear how this would occur.
Next is – the evolution problem – why and exactly how the human form of consciousness evolved is not known. Surely, it is built on previously evolved forms of animal consciousness, both sensory and emotional. There are many possible avenues that could have been taken to arrive at human consciousness. Many consciousness researchers agree that one of the main functions of consciousness is making information “globally available” to an organism. Attention may see with more detail than memory or conceptual thought – and so has a higher degree of availability. The author sees consciousness as a new kind of organ, a virtual organ. Other virtual organs may include feelings, episodic memory, and immune response. Global availability of information allows us to do many things:
“If you have a conscious, transparent world-model, you can, for the first time, directly compare what is actual with what is only possible, the actual world with simulated possible worlds you’ve designed in your mind.”
This functional property of comparing the actual to the possible, he says, is an evolutionary step upon which everything else rests. Offline simulations can plan online actions so this property allowed us to use episodic memory to plan actions. We became able to utilize the past and simulate the future in order to deal with the “dangerous present.” The transparency of the model, he says, allowed us to see the difference between the “real” world (though technically still a virtual world) and the many possible worlds of simulation.
Finally, there is – the who problem – “consciousness is always bound to an individual first-person perspective.” Subjectivity is vague. Just who is “I”? A severe psychiatric disorder called Cotard’s Syndrome is sometimes characterized by the person claiming that they don’t exist. Some famed mystics have also come to this conclusion based on their experiences of the loss of a sense of self. The sense of unity in mystical experience perhaps points to the illusion of the limited self within the tunnel. Metzinger speculates that the evolution of our immune systems first developed determinations on the cellular level as to what is us and what is not us, ie. the invader. That was perhaps the beginning of the conceptual self/world distinction. Our self-model was likely based on our world-model. Even so, the whole idea of the self and subjectivity is still difficult to comprehend.
An interview with German neurophysiologist Wolf Singer concludes the chapter where he talks about the “powerful self-organizing mechanisms of the brain.” Many of these mechanisms are controlled by “synchronized oscillatory discharges.” Precise synchronization of neuronal events may account for (the apparent?) unity of consciousness. Singer notes that a current big challenge is refining our knowledge of how information is encoded in the brain: rate of firing, amplitudes and duration of discharges, etc. Pattern searching through complex mathematical algorithms is a current method of searching for precise encoding mechanisms in order to search for the NCCs. He also suggests that future collaborations between cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers and others in the humanities will be required as more becomes known.
The body-mind nexus is next examined. Having a body gives us a sense of ownership of it. The interplay between vision, touch, and proprioception can be manipulated, as in the rubber-hand illusion, to alter the self-model. We can utilize our body-image self-model to better use tools, thus integrating vision, touch, and proprioception. The tool becomes part of the bodily self. It seems likely that the evolution of tool use may have co-evolved to some extent with the bodily self-model. Experiments have shown that monkeys, also tool users, also have this sort of bodily self-model.
“… the evolution of language, culture, and abstract thought might have been a process of “exaptation,” of using our body maps for new challenges and purposes.”
OBEs are the next subject. He talks about it as a taboo subject in philosophical circles when he was in school as materialism was in vogue and any talk about soul components was stifled. He suggests that the “soul” as a metaphysical concept may have arisen to from the phenomenological concept of the experienced OBE. He says that the soul is the OBE-PSM. He goes through several accounts of OBEs, several his own, and Susan Blackmore’s interesting theory about them – that they are a conscious simulation of the world from a third-person perspective that include a realistic body representation that we think is real. We notice the body, not as subject, but as object. The phenomena of “autoscopy,” of viewing one’s body from a distance, is very related. There are autoscopic hallucinatory experiences of four main types: autoscopy, heautoscopy – changing bodies, OBE, and “feeling of a presence.” The phenomenology of OBEs varies, with different methods of separating from the body and speeds of doing so. Some sense themselves in another body while others feel they are bodiless. OBEs were inadvertently induced in an epileptic patient in 2002 by Olaf Blanke and colleagues, while using invasive neuro-imaging to try and find legions. Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) has also been found to induce the “feeling of a presence.” Blanke and colleagues note that two pathological conditions are necessary to form an OBE: 1) “disintegration on the level of the self-model brought about by a failure to bind proprioceptive, tactile, and visual information about one’s body”, and 2) “conflict between external, visual space and the internal frame of reference created by our vestibular organs.” We see the body in a different position than we feel it. The author describes some experiments done with Olaf and a colleague where he – the author – was the subject – utilizing virtual reality hardware to try and create a whole body version of the rubber-hand illusion. The results were not stellar but there was identification with a mannequin by many of the subjects in the manner of the rubber-hand illusion. The bodily self occupies space while the seeing self does not. They can be effectively separated, says the author. The seeing self can be turned off by closing the eyes, so is not the essence of selfhood. The author suggests that we don’t know, but the closest we can get to an essence of selfhood is: “location in space and time plus a transparent body image.” Attentional agency, or self-directed attention allows for global availability, and thus a sense of selfhood.
Conscious experience as the self-model is an interface, a control device, a virtual world that allows us better control of the outside world. The ego is a functional illusion. The human brain can be compared to a modern flight simulator – continually constructing and updating an internal model of external reality by filtering through the senses and past experience. The difference is that our brain as a simulator is updated at such fast rates and degrees of accuracy that we don’t recognize it as a model. The pilot of our simulator is the non-existent ego.
Experiments with “phantom limb” victims (amputees who can still sense their amputated limbs) have succeeded in getting them to feel a sense of movement in those limbs, but only when their eyes were open to the illusion given them. Since, coordinated bodily movements were needed for survival, the bodily self-model developed to increase speed and coordination – first among animals and then perhaps conceptually among humans.
There is another odd phenomenon, known as “Alien Hand syndrome” where one loses control of a limb. The hand seems to have a “will” of its own. The feeling of control, of self-willing actions, and of actions willed by another – varies in different psychiatric maladies. The author asks on an ultimate philosophical level- Are there willed actions or just events that occur? Our sense of ownership (of our body) supports our sense of self which then supports our sense of agency, ie. will. The author notes that: “the Ego is a neurocomputational device for appropriating and controlling the body – first the physical one and then the virtual one.” Attentional agency, or directing (willing) the attention is a result of the consolidation of the ego tunnel. Infants cannot do it – as their ego tunnel is not yet consolidated. In dreams there is often consciousness without attentional control. Drunkenness and senility may be other examples. Cognitive agency is selecting the contents of your mind – experiencing yourself as a thinker of thoughts – a la Descartes (pun intended). Moving the body, focusing attention, and selecting thoughts all involve effort, so agency is associated with effort.
Agency can be hallucinated as ESB experiments confirm. We can think we willed or intended an action when we didn’t. 1990’s trickery experiments by psychologists Wegman and Wheatley caused people to think they were willing actions when not and they concluded that the phenomenal experience of will consists of three principles:
“The principle of exclusivity holds that the subject’s thought should be the only introspectively available cause of action; the principle of consistency hold that the subjective intention should be consistent with the action; and the principle of priority holds that the thought should precede the action “in a timely manner””.
The sense of agency, the conscious experience of will, allows us to see ourselves as pursuing goals and leads to optimizing means to ends. It also allows us to know that others also have will of their own.
In examining the dream state he notes an example where a person has a dream that they had an OBE and woke up and told someone about it – but it was a false awakening. This confounds the appearance/reality distinction. He suggests that it demonstrates that consciousness is never more than the appearance of a world. The dream tunnel also creates the appearance of a world but one without sensory-motor activity. Dreams are unstable and tend to lack focused attention. The sense of will is reduced. Emotions, however, can be enhanced in dreams. In lucid dreams we may become aware of the ego tunnel. We know that we are in a simulated world. Memory, a sense of agency, and sensory experience may remain intact in a lucid dream. In fact, the sense of will can be strong – as when I was lucid dreaming I was experimenting with the dream state willing different things – which is also a technique of Indo-Tibetan dream yoga practices. Dr. Stephen LaBerge of
was able to devise a means
where lucid dreamers could signal with their eye movements that they were
having a lucid dream. The author calls these rare examples of trans-tunnel
communications. Psychiatrist Alan Hobson has worked with discovering a neural
correlate of lucid dreaming. There is an interview with Hobson. He thinks that
dreaming is “our subjective awareness of our dream activation in any state of
sleep.” Activation is highest in REM sleep so that state is most associated
with dreaming. Stroke and frontal lobotomy victims often report a cessation of
dreaming depending on which parts of the brain were affected so dreaming, or
dream recall, is dependent on coordination of brain parts. Asked about the
evolutionary function of dreaming, Hobson first suggests that there may not be
one. If dream recall was adaptive we would have more of it. Other possibilities
of the function of dreams he suggests are “enhancement of motor learning, the
regulation of dietary and thermal calories, and the improvement of immune
functions.” Since mammals are homeothermic, brain activation during sleep helps
to regulate brain temperature in species that face variances in temperature and
environment. Hobson also notes that Freud’s psychoanalytic dream analysis and
wish fulfillment functions have mostly been refuted by neuroscience. Stanford University
The Ego Tunnel has not only an inward perspective but also a social aspect. The theory is that new layers to the self-model allowed the transition from biological to cultural evolution. The transition in the self-model from first-person singular (me) to first-person plural (we) allowed for the beginning of moral agency. The new discipline of “social neuroscience” deals with the social aspects of neurology. Neurologists first discovered a set of neurons that respond to visual perception of objects in our environment. These canonical neurons are related to the use of an inner motor vocabulary that deals with possible actions related to an object. These neurons, he says, are precursors to the self-model. Another related group of neurons, called mirror neurons, are activated when we observe behavior in others and match or emulate it. We map the actions of others onto our own model. We also note that others also have goals. Mirror neuron systems can also be activated for emotional states. This also gives a sort of neural correlate for empathy. We can simulate the physical and emotional states of others using our own self-model. The author thinks that the body-model was an adaptation and that social cognition, stemming from the precursor actions of mirror neurons, was an “exaptation”, a new use for the previously developed adaptation. Canonical neurons could be the link between motor activity and primitive inner conceptual language. Mirror neurons could be the precursor to communicating meaning to others. He speculates that the precursor to language was gestural communication rather than animal calls. Gestures communicate meaning better than calls. We understand gestures because we do them too, having learned them from mirroring or mimicking others. Interestingly, he notes, the word for grasping (at least in Latin) is related to the word for concepts – and even now we say that we “grasp a concept.” This is a possible relationship between motor-activity and understanding meaning that may hark back to the formulation or adding of a new layer to our self-model. There are clear neural relationships between movement of the hand/arm and the mouth. It seems sensible to conclude that body language is the foundation of verbal language. Mirror neurons may explain other phenomena as well – the infectiousness of yawning and of laughter, the group behaviors of schools of fish, flocks, of birds, herds, and even human social conformity. These can be seen as forms of synchronization with one another.
There is an interview with Vittorio Gallese, a neurophysiologist and an authority on mirror neurons. He expounds on his shared manifold hypothesis – which is our link with others in understanding them through observation. He calls this shared manifold an expanded idea of empathy. On the phenomenological level there is a sense of similarity and familiarity when we encounter others – that we are part of a shared social sphere. Functionally, there is “embodied simulation” of actions, emotions, and sensations observed in others. Subpersonally, there is the action of the mirroring neural circuits. Generally, when we are with others, we become “we-centric”, at least to some extent. Mirror neuron activity suggests that we empathize unconsciously and automatically by modeling others’ behavior. Such systems may have evolved through the need to accurately read the intentions of others to increase survivability. He mentions “orders of intentionality”, ie. “I know that you know that I know, etc.” We learn best by imitation which may well involve mirror neurons. Even repeatedly hearing the narration of a story may involve mirror neurons so they are activated in language processing. Imitation, and the empathizing the underlies it, is very important to cultures with strong oral traditions. Mirroring neural circuitry is likely being effected by new forms of media as well, from books to cinema to internet, says Gallese. He also notes that cognitive neuroscience and philosophy of mind deal with the same problems but utilize different approaches and so should be utilized in tandem.
Next, there is a discussion of Artificial Ego Machines, which refers to AI systems that simulate ego tunnels in some way. This part of the book I found to be speculative and not all that interesting, maybe because it is in its infancy. There are a lot of “what ifs” here. He examines the ethical implications of developing artificial ego machines as well – noting that we would be better off working on reducing human suffering first.
The final section on Consciousness Technologies is interesting. Ultimately, the Ego and its Tunnel is a model of a model of reality. There can be many ways to model reality. We can see the self as process – we can say we are “selfing”. He does seem adamant in concluding that there is no “ghost in the machine, no Ego in the Tunnel, no definable entity we can call self. There is only “dynamical self-organization.” He suggests that we cannot really understand consciousness without radically transforming our state of consciousness. He notes that:
“Obviously, the evolutionary process that created our bodies, our brains, and our conscious minds was not a goal-directed chain of events.”
He sees our evolutionary development as the result of “bottom-up self-organization.”He does note that knowledge of the tunnel by groups of scientists is actually invading the tunnel. Consciousness of our consciousness is affecting our consciousness. The fact of mortality is an existential conflict. We are selfless ego machines longing for immortality. Are we the evolutionary products of goal-less chance?
The author suggests that a “philosophically motivate neuroanthropology” may gain in importance as neurological advances weaken traditional religious views. What is a human and what should a human become may be the key questions of this science. Will weakening of religion weaken ethics? I doubt it, as ideas like ethics and compassion seem intuitively important, regardless of religious dogma. The author talks of a “recursive” process that may alter the contents, structure, and function of our self-model:
“The world evolved world-modelers. Parts began to mirror the whole.”
“More important, the world evolved self-modelers who were able to form groups…… Through science, the dynamic processes of self-modeling and world-modeling were extended into the symbolic, the social, and the historical dimensions: We became rational theory-makers.”
The author considers the idea of consensual agreement on what constitutes desirable states of consciousness. Shamans, yogis, mystics, drug users, and others have explored consciousness through the means available: herbs, drugs, fasting, drumming, dancing, fear, pain, ecstasy, etc. Now we have at least crude neurological explanations for many of these states. With newer drugs and brain manipulation techniques (neurotechnology) we have opportunities for “cognitive enhancement.” I remember the beginnings of the “smart drug”, or “nootropics” scene in the 80’s but not much seems to have been done since then from my perspective – but maybe I’m wrong, maybe I just have not kept up. Persinger’s “temporal-lobe” theory of religious/mystical experience and personality shifts was an early attempt at finding neural correlates to these experiences. In a study from the journal Nature it was revealed that scientists that use cognitive enhancers, preferred methylphenidate (Ritalin). in order to stimulate focus, concentration, and memory. Others preferred modafinil. The author examines the ethical implications of cognitive enhancers and the possibilities that there may be tens of thousands of variant drugs on the markets, white and black, in the years to come. Drug policy will have to determine which brain-states will be illegal and which legal.
The internet is merging with our self-model. On-line addiction can be problematic but the trade-offs are acceptable. The internet, for all it is, is also a consciousness technology. Attention management is an issue we face. Attention is finite. We can only “attend” to so many things at once or in the space of a day. The author proposes childhood development in attention management through such forms as training in meditation. Development of a rational and ethical “consciousness culture” is another avenue he explores.
Great book. Difficult at times. Lots of terminology and abstract ideas.
Thursday, July 4, 2013
Book Review: The Sacred Balance: Rediscovering Our Place in Nature by David Suzuki with Amanda McConnell (Graystone Books 1997, 2002)
I appreciated this book as a contemplation of the elements and of nature in general. It is an analysis, from an ecosystem perspective, of our place in that system. Suzuki is a Canadian zoologist, but is best known for his long-running science TV show – The Nature of Things. He is also an activist and author.
Suzuki has criticized human patterns of “hyperconsumption” based on the rather extravagant lifestyles of some. He also questions the goal of economic growth as primary. He discusses the birth of environmentalism after Rachel Carson’s “Silent Spring” revelations about the dangers of pesticides and the phenomenon of “biomagnification,” where pesticides and poisons work their way through the food chain. His own revelation came from indigenous peoples who noted that we are not really separate from our environment, so what we do to it, we do to ourselves. He says that he used psychologist Abraham Maslow’s famous – hierarchy of needs, as a sort of model for structuring the book. He commences to try and “weave a worldview” with the indigenous-type respect for nature and our needs as modern humans. Previous revolutionary thought in science that is reflected in worldviews is noted. These scientific and reductionist ideas of people like Copernicus, Descartes,
and , are
contrasted with the holistic worldviews of indigenous peoples. Science tends to
focus on parts rather than the whole, although the acknowledgement of new forms
of interconnectedness and interdependence between different parts of nature
continue to emerge. He notes that managing ecosystems with billions of
variously interconnected components can be a daunting task. He suggests
combining the holistic reverence of nature and its parts as siblings to us,
with the view that arises from our scientific knowledge into a new overall
worldview, or a new “environmental ethic” as E.O. Wilson stated it. Darwin
Air – “the breath of all green things” is the first element contemplated. Breath is, of course, something we need at all times, and is always moving in and out of us. Life and the atmosphere are intimately related.
“Breathing is controlled in the oldest part of the brain, the respiratory center of the brain stem, a relic that originated before the dawn of consciousness.”
Our bodies have many ways to regulate oxygen, to give us what we need at each time. Oxygen is combustible. It shares electrons at variable rates in the process known as oxidation. He describes in detail what happens in our bodies when we breathe. He describes a breath of air according to Harvard astronomer Harlow Shapley, who notes that 1% of breathed air is the inert gas argon, which is breathed in and then out. According to his calculations, each breath we breathe contains atoms of argon breathed by us a year earlier, after traveling around the world. It also contains the same argon atoms breathed by countless beings of the past and present. In this sense air transcends time. He describes air as a “matrix the joins all life together.” He also describes the development of the earth’s atmosphere, initially from the gases of volcanic eruptions. After a while the atmosphere cooled enough for water vapor to condense into clouds, which initiated the water cycle. Early sea life utilized CO2 dissolved in the ocean to make shells. The development of the metabolic process of photosynthesis enabled the atmosphere to be oxygenated by plants. He describes the layers of the atmosphere, comparing them to the medieval concept of the heavenly “music of the spheres.” The atmosphere also protects us against dangerous radiation, Oxygen, changing to O3, or ozone, is implicated in this process. So, he says, life and the atmosphere have a reciprocal relationship, “each creating, adjusting to, modifying and protecting the other …” Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere. It is thought that 25% O2 could ignite the atmosphere and 15% would be lethal to life, so it is definitely optimized into a narrow range. CO2 and water vapor, as greenhouse gases, regulate the temperature of the earth. Just as plants release oxygen to our atmosphere, so too do our machines release gases and pollutants into the atmosphere, and sometimes at dangerous levels. There is no doubt that in a small but significant way, humans are changing the composition of the atmosphere.
About 74.5% of the surface of the earth is water. Just as the air element, the water element is explored through myth, metaphor, and science. Life began in the ocean and is dependent on the water cycle. Though he doesn’t mention it, some of the earliest writings of oral tradition in the Rig Veda, have much to do with the water cycle. Water has many qualities and properties that support life and various biological processes. Life requires water in liquid form. It has been said that life itself is animated water. The average human is about 60% water by weight. As with air, our body regulates the amount of available water through the presence of thirst, the increasing and decreasing of urine generation, saliva, our sweating mechanism, etc. Water plays a key role in regulating temperature. Water is a remarkable heat sink and so can regulate temperatures around itself. Water, the universal solvent, has amazing properties that are often based on its own molecular properties. In science, the measurement of the properties of water is often the reference point, the point of comparison, for other physical processes.
Freshwater sources, such as the great rivers, were key to the development of human civilization. North America, especially
Canada and the , are blessed with vast
freshwater sources. These two countries also have the greatest per capita water
The ocean and its currents stabilize the temperature of the Earth. Water exemplifies the fact that “life is opportunistic” so that organisms have learned to adapt to abundant water, scarce water, saltwater, freshwater, and to hone in on the diverse habitats available.
Suzuki recounts the loss of life in
Erie from pollution and overfishing. He notes that
“eutrophication” – or excess algal growth stimulated by phosphates (from
pesticides) had depleted oxygen and that DDT runoff from farms was also killing
lake animals. Introduced species (such as the zebra mussel) and industrial
effluents are also very problematic.
Microscopes reveal that soil is alive, full of microorganisms. Often in creation myths, the first humans were fashioned form soil or clay. Land is the traditional source of food and medicine. Indigenous societies magically promoted the fecundity of the land. In actuality, the soil is alive with nitrogen-fixing and other microorganisms that make it fertile. These microorganisms make up the major amount of species by mass, of all species. Many are unstudied. The soil filters, cleans, and recycles water and decaying matter.
The origins of soil are recounted with the three types of weathering of rock: mechanical, chemical, and biological. Mechanical weathering simply breaks rock into smaller pieces, usually initiated by water and ice. Chemical weathering is by chemical reactions, dissolving and precipitating, and is also often initiated by water, carrying reactants. Biological weathering is caused by life – by organisms excreting chemicals and decaying.
Life eventually enriched itself through its own decay by the development of organic-rich topsoil. Plants reduce erosion and hold the soil in place. The authors describe soil science, soil horizons, and processes of leaching and accumulation in soils. We need food and its molecular components such as vitamins. The sensory process of food interest, subsequent feeding, and digestion are described in detail. For me, all these descriptions served as reminders of basic life science processes. The process of starvation is also described. Indeed, food is our energy source, and without it we stop.
Agriculture is also examined. The effect of modern methods of factory farming on top soil tend to make it thinner, able to hold less water, and be more prone to washing away during flooding. But human depletion of food and agricultural resources actually began in pre-agricultural Paleolithic times when certain large species of animals were hunted to extinction. Controlled burning to make way for agriculture also devastated large swathes of land. Modern agricultural methods, while increasing yields, are also depleting topsoil at an alarming rate. Increasing population increases the need for agriculture and leads to more deforestation. Smaller traditional human groups, often developed better reciprocal relationships with the environment, through subsistence farming and conservation-minded hunting methods and hunting rituals. The current popularity of organic and sustainable farming methods offers hope to keep the soil resources useful for future generations.
Our source of light and heat, the sun, is here called the Divine Fire. According to the Rig Veda, the Supreme God first arose from heat. This sun fire is energy. Energy is the capacity to do work. Energy functions according to the various laws of physics. The sun powers the area beyond it with energy, which counteracts the decay of energy, the tendency toward randomness and disorder known as entropy. Mammals like us keep a constant body temperature (we are homeothermic). Our source of heat is the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. We also absorb and lose heat through our skin. We make excessive heat in the form of fevers to weaken and destroy dangerous microorganisms.
Along with the fire within there is the fire without. Humans’ mastery of fire allowed us to enter and dwell in new and varied habitats. It also brought us together in campsites that we defended against predators and other humans. He gives the ancient Greek story of Prometheus and Pandora and compares it to the story of the Garden of Eden.
Energy transactions take place at the atomic, molecular, and cellular levels. It is thought that life began by utilizing energy and then improved itself by finding sources of continuous energy. Although some forms of life utilize the energy and heat arising from the planet’s interior, the sun is the source of energy for most of life. About 99.8 % of all matter in our solar system is contained by the sun – 75% hydrogen and 25% helium. Photosynthesis, the eating or internal metabolizing of the sun’s energy, was a big step in the evolution of life. This oxygenated the atmosphere. It took millions of years for the slow accumulation (in anoxic environments), burial, pressurizing, and heating of the carcasses of small forms of life that came to be hydrocarbons – coal, oil, and natural gas. These hydrocarbons store energy from the sun. Animal fat, dung, straw, and wood were the fuels used by humans before these hydrocarbons were discovered and fueled the Industrial Revolution. Now, our standards of living include constant instant access to light, heat, and power. But like Prometheus and Pandora, fire (energy) is a double-edged sword. The wastes – pollution and CO2 and ghg build-up – have the potential to destroy life as we know it.
Life itself shapes and creates the environment. Biodiversity, or the totality of life, say the authors, should take its place beside the elements as a fashioner of the biosphere. All species can be seen as a web, as an ecosystem. All species are linked in the food chain. Different species have different emphases and sensory abilities. While we humans have that crown jewel of consciousness and great awareness, other species have better sensory ranges and abilities than us. Of course, we can probe into the unknown and off-limits sensory realms with our scientific instruments. Now we know that the totality of microscopic organisms have a greater biomass than all other organisms. Nature is cyclic and organisms can be grouped into producers, consumers, and decomposers, so that each in some way provides for the others.
Biodiversity is important because it is one of life’s primary defenses against the potential damaging effects of changing conditions. All living organisms are genetically related so we all have the same source far enough back in time. The Native American statement that “we are all related” is quite scientifically accurate. It is well known that genetic diversity increases the survivability of a species. In the same manner, biodiversity increases the survivability of life. Genetic diversity is also called genetic polymorphism, and is based on gene variance. In modern times, the agricultural practice of “monoculture”, planting only one variety of a crop, has been shown often to weaken that particular variety by reducing genetic diversity and cross-pollination. This is counteractive to life’s evolutionary strategy. The biosphere is composed of diverse ecosystems, each with diverse life forms that have diverse genetics. By analogy, one would expect human cultural diversity to be a strategic advantage as well. Diversity of human cultural knowledge has also led to our success. Our minds have even become more diverse through time:
“Most of our instinctive behavior has been replaced by flexibility, an ability to change patterns of behavior on the basis of observation and experience.”
“Diversity confers resilience, adaptability, and the capacity for regeneration.”
Our success depends on the success of many, or perhaps most or all, other organisms. Since we are full of microorganisms it can be said that we are a community of organisms. Some recent biological research has been about “superorganisms”, from eusocial species that colonize, such as bees, ants, and humans, to massive underground mycelia networks and quaking aspen colonies. Is the totality of life on Earth a superorganism? Are we the living Gaia? That is what James Lovelock originally thought through his Gaia hypothesis, though I have heard he is not so sure these days. Earth/Biosphere balances itself through feedback mechanisms, but these are notoriously slow. That is why human effects such as global warming, may be so devastating. Such feedback mechanisms can be compared to the feedback and regulating mechanisms of the human body. There is no doubt that the Earth has changed rather drastically since the Industrial Revolution with the corresponding increase in human population and standard of living. There have been five major extinction crises over the last 500 million years where 65% or more of species have gone extinct. Each of these may be related to climate change and each took about 10 million years for natural restoration of biodiversity to occur.
Suzuki recounts the time he and his family spent among native Kayapus deep in in the Amazon rainforest and the different sort of life and time reckoning there. He also talks about environmental restoration being a top priority and notes some success stories where ecosystems have been restored to varying degrees through restorative processes but especially through abandoning destructive processes.
In a chapter called “The Law of Love” the idea that higher needs arise when base needs are met, based on Maslow’s hierarchy, is examined. Studies show that parental love and gestures of affection toward children can lead to better child development and contentment. The attunement of child and mother, even of fetus and mother, can be seen as a precursor of sorts, to love. The reciprocal benefits of nursing are another example. Humans bond in families and extended family clans, within which they show allegiance and affection to one another. Nature and nurture work in a balance of sorts. Humans require more than physiological health. Psychological health is also very important to we social creatures.
Humans also have the capacity for brutality. Even so, humans that were victims of tragedy and brutality, also have the capacity to heal those wounds - if needs for security and psychological comfort are met.
Early humans relied on memory and forethought for survival. This is an early form of “cost-benefit” analysis. Nowadays, with our global society, it is not so easy to do total cost-benefit analysis and people tend to disagree. We also need to consider costs and benefits to future generations. The definitions of community have also changed here in the post-Industrial Age. We have tended to think that the wonders of technology have improved our lives to the point that non-technological societies are inferior.
“Communities are bound together by shared beliefs, values, history, and rituals; they have always walked a fine line between inclusiveness and exclusivity.”
Modern society has rather estranged us from the clan and tribal structures, though we still have our family units. City life has resulted in many neighbors being strangers. Since we have cars we can go away to be where we want and need to be. Peace and stability in clans, neighborhoods, and communities, as well as in families, is important for our well-being. We now live in large heterogeneous societies. Consumerism is often valued over citizenship. We are expected to contribute to economic development. An example of a backfire is the overfishing problem off the coast of
40,000 people lost their livelihood (temporarily) in an industry that had
thrived for five centuries. Newfoundland
Suzuki goes on to recount E.O. Wilson’s notion of “biophilia” where we revive our evolutionary links to all other creatures.
defined it as “the
innate tendency to focus on life and life-like processes.” Fellowship with
nature is considered by many to be therapeutic. It tends to relieve stress and
bring on feelings of child-like wonder. He mentions ideas of wedding ecology
and psychology into the field of ecopsychology. I suppose there can be a split
for folk who are entirely city bound but I also think this split from nature
notion is a bit overplayed as nature is everywhere, even within human
Moving again up Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, comes the so-called need for spiritual or sacred meaning. From the creation stories that bind together tribes to modern dogmatic religions, it can be argued that we have such a need. Along with myths of our origins there are often myths of our “mess-ups”: the fall of humans from paradise, dignity, or the favor of the gods. He notes that in the modern world we often see spirit and matter as separate but in the times of animism, matter was animated with spirit. While traditional animism is not likely where the world of modern spirituality is headed, there is some correlation of animism with an ecological worldview. In many traditional views, after we die, we, or a component of our soul becomes a contactable land spirit and/or an ancestor to call upon in times of need. Suzuki talks about our modern technological society being beset with an alienation of the spirit. While I agree that this is true, I am not certain that it is a bad thing. I don’t think it is so good that we get too attached to superstitions, which are in effect dogmas. Of course, even science can become dogmatic. He talks of the divided world of matter and spirit perpetuated by mechanistic science and the ideas of Galileo, Descartes,
, etc. When body and mind are seen as
separate, our emphases change. The body is limited by mortality and so there is
a dead-end in the maze if we seek that as our only possible route. His basic
thesis is that we are unbalanced toward materialism and technological hope,
that we are split and there is longing for wholeness. Matter is not mortal. It
merely changes form. It is always there, somewhere, sometime, in the same
original amount, or so science suggests. Objective reality is not the totality
of reality. Our own mortality leads us to seek that which is eternal. Seeing
the world in terms of ecology, an ecological vision, can lead us to think in
terms of relationships rather than separated objects, says Suzuki. We are part
of a system and how we relate to other parts is how we are. We are a tree but
we are also the forest. They talk about labels, how naming a thing creates an
identity, a separate existence, in our language-mind. They think that an
ethical system based on ecological principles is what we need as humans. We
need to re-connect the mind-body dichotomy. Newton
To restore the balance, it is suggested that we engender humility and try to see things as all life, rather than as “me”, the individual. The suggestions for how to make the world better are mostly obvious hopeful things like using less, thinking deeply about how much material goods one needs, reducing/reusing/recycling, etc. While these are all fine things they are only truly effective if a large segment of the population indulges. He goes through some examples of people that have had positive affects on society and environment: yacht racer Ian Kiernan, architect William McDonough, the late Wangari Maathai – the great tree planter of the Green Belt Movement, biodiversity advocate Vandana Shiva, scientist-doctor Karl-Henrik Robert, mangrove reforestation advocate Motohiko Koga, and micro-loan pioneer Muhammed Yunis.
Overall, an interesting book, especially for the reminders of scientific facts and different perspectives they can bring. Even so, it was not a book with any groundbreaking ideas or creative solutions to world problems, though I did appreciate the examination of the values of biodiversity. For me, it was mostly a good contemplation on nature and life.