Bharati notes that philosophically, tantra in both Buddhism and Hinduism is no different than non-tantric Buddhism and Hinduism. Certainly tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism builds on Mahayana Buddhism and is indeed considered by those who practice it to be a subset of Mahayana. Non-tantric Saivites also share similar philosophical positions with tantric Saivites. The difference lies in the Sadhana, or contemplative practices. So the difference between tantric and non-tantric approaches is methodological. As some of my teachers have noted – tantra is a technology, a style of practice that bypasses and may lead to quick results.
In comparing elements of Indian philosophy he notes that all are concerned with emancipation from a state of delusion and all postulate an underlying ‘absolute’ to the phenomenal universe. Here he notes the Vedantic brahman and the Mahayana sunya, or emptiness as being similar concepts. They are both concepts used to describe (often in exclusive terms) an absoluteness beyond concepts. Bharati makes an interesting suggestion that tantrism involves experiencing the inseparability of the absolute and phenomenal worlds through sadhana. In the Madyamika philosophy of the Mahayana this is the inseparability of samsara and nirvana. He thinks that there are differences between the Hindu and Buddhist approaches but many disagree. Indeed it was said in 10th century