“Over the course of the Romantic age, the image of the artist is transformed from that of the tormented individual, estranged from society, to that of a social institution.”
Things began to change as Romanticism began to wane when Einstein re-shattered scientific orthodoxy in the early 20th century. His contemporary, the composer Arnold Schoenberg was considered the last great Romantic composer but he also incorporated the great theme and other elements of the Pythagorean tradition. He was known for his “atonality” which he preferred to call “pantonical” – utilizing all the keys. His and others’ twelve-tone method of composition would endeavor to utilize all twelve notes of the chromatic scale equally in a composition. Schoenberg’s method was complex with specific rules for keeping sequences within the chromatic scale though notes could be successive or simultaneous. The method might resemble a mathematical puzzle. Some composers found the method restrictive but many others found it to be liberating. Schoenberg had many loyal students. His genius and teaching power have been likened to that of Pythagoras himself and like many composers he was apparently a bit obsessed with numbers.